Kungiyar tsoffin daliban kwalejin kimiyya ta Dawakin Kudu KASSOSA aji na 1987 ta jaddada kudurin ta na kawo sauyi a yanayin tafiyar da karatun kimiyya. Shugaban kwalejin ilmi da share fagen …
Shugaban kungiyar tsoffin daliban kwalejin Kimiyya ta Dawakin Tofa aji na 1990 Inijiniya Abubakar Ibrahim Khalil ya ja hankalin gwamnatin jihar Kano wajen magance matsalolin da suka dabai-baye sha’anin karatun kimiyya. …
Shugaban kungiyar tsoffin daliban kwalejin Kimiyya ta Dawakin Tofa aji na 1990 Inijiniya Abubakar Ibrahim Khalil ya ja hankalin gwamnatin jihar Kano wajen magance matsalolin da suka dabai-baye sha’anin karatun kimiyya.
Injiniya Abubakar Ibrahim Khalil ya bayyana hakan ne yayin taron Sallah karama da kungiyar ta gabatar a dakin taro dake asibitin Aminu koyarwa na Aminu Kano.
A cewar sa akwai bukatar mayar da hankali sosai a bangaren ilmin kimiyya, saboda koma bayan da ake fama da shi a bangaren yayin da duniya a halin yanzu tafi karfi a bangaren na kimiyya.
Da yake jawabi, shugaban kwamitin kula da marayu da walwala na kungiyar Malam Kabir Dalha Kabir ya bayyana bukatar dake da akwai wajen yin gidauniyyar tallafawa marasa karfi a wani mataki na jan sauran al’umma a jika.
A yayin taron kungiyar tsoffin daliban kwalejin kimiyya ta Dawakin Tofa aji na 1990, sun karrama daya daga cikin mamban su daya samu matakin karatu na Farfesa a sashen nazarin Injiniya dake jami’ar Bayero anan Kano Farfesa Ibrahim Abdullahi Panshekara.
Hukumar gudanarwa ta Freedom Radio da Dala FM Kano, sun shiryawa ma’aikatansu horo a kan yadda za su rika wallafa labarai a kan shafukan yanar gizo da yin bincike a internet, …
Hukumar gudanarwa ta Freedom Radio da Dala FM Kano, sun shiryawa ma’aikatansu horo a kan yadda za su rika wallafa labarai a kan shafukan yanar gizo da yin bincike a internet, da tantance sahihancin labarai a internet.
Ma’aikatan wadanda suka fito daga sassa daban-daban na tashoshin za su shafe tsawon kwanaki uku suna karbar horon.
Masu karbar horon sun nuna farin cikinsu a kan yadda mai bayar da horon Basheer Sharfadi ya ke nuna kwarewa, a yayin da ya ke koyawa yan jaridun sabbin hanyoyin wallafa labarai a kafafen sada zumunci. Sannnan sun godewa hukumar gudanarwa ta Freedom Radio da ta shirya bitar.
Rahoto: Kamilu Saminu Zawaciki
The Kofar Matar Dye Pits are a very historical place for the people of Kano. Established in 1498, the Kofar Matar pits situated in the city centre, goes as way back …
The Kofar Matar Dye Pits are a very historical place for the people of Kano. Established in 1498, the Kofar Matar pits situated in the city centre, goes as way back as 500yrs plus. It has been constantly in use ever since, and a lot of tourists come from all over the world to see it. Interestingly, they still use the same method they did use in those days.
Kofar Mata dye pits are located very close to the old Kofar Mata historical gate and walls, also known as Ganuwa. According to a school of thought, the dye pits existed long before the building of the Kofar Mata gate and walls. The Kofar Mata dye pits are also located east of the Kano City central mosque.
The famous Kofar Mata dye pits have surpassed history as even the greatest of world leaders have confirmed knowledge of it in books of history and great museums across the globe.
However, it is now faced with time changing events and leadership. It was originally an open place with no fence or beautification, and nothing was being done to modernize it.
The Kano indigo-vegetable dyeing pits are one of the most fascinating aspects of the old city. Various designs are folded into the material before dyeing and the fabric is often beaten to achieve the shiny, decent appearance. The techniques employed to obtain this look are unmatched around the world. And, although the methods they use are ancient, these lush works of art on fabric have remained extremely popular and have continued to be in great demand.
There were dyeing pits in Zaria as well as in Kano those days when they were all still at use. Today, only the famous Kofar Mata pits of Kano have survived – they have also become a much liked tourist attraction. Tourists are delighted to know that the pits they are looking at were actually founded in 1498 and the dying process has not changed in centuries.
The Tuaregs have always been good customers of the Zango fabrics. They are also known as the “Blue Men of the Desert” due to the fact that for them, the indigo fabric is left natural after the dye and not fixed with salt and vinegar so that when it is washed, it dyes their faces and hands blue. Quite beautiful, you’ll say.
On just a single visit, one may not easily appreciate the efforts that are being put in to produce the final work on a fabric from the pits. It is an amazing trip to take to the famous Kano dyeing pit where clothes that originally came in plain white colours are dyed and transformed into patches of colours, patterns and designs. At the entrance of the Kofar Mata Dyeing Pits, hordes of activities are in full swing.
Girls and women also hawk their goods which include some gourds of fresh nono (fresh cow milk) sitting pretty on their heads, others also hawk kola nuts, groundnuts, and other items. The Kano dyeing pit, which was until recent years, open and unguarded is completely cordoned off from public view. Unless you walk into the place, it is not possible to see the ancient structure where young men and women sweat it out in the scorching sun dyeing cloths.
However, at the other end of the dye pits site, there were a number of people practicing what they called Bugu; that is hammering the dyed and dried fabrics with wood. According to a young Baballe, the practice of Bugu is as old as dying itself and always came second to dying. In fact, it was an old way of pressing clothes into shape, he added, while describing the business as lucrative, considering that it goes with modern time where people brought their clothes for bugu in the case of power outage.
It was observed with utmost dismay how the long-age dying industry became a shadow of itself, where out of the almost 100 dye pits only one has been functioning.
Enquiries at the Kano State Tourism Board to ascertain the mystery surrounding the total collapsed of the trade of traditional dying revealed that insurgency, modern dying and negligence on the part of government were the causes of the death of the trade.
In our encounter with one of the tourism board staff, he expressed concern that the board had not been doing enough to assist the business than doing all what it could to keep the place as the only tourists attraction site.
He also emphasised the significance of modern dying as all-encompassing and can dye various colours than traditional dying that produced only lagoon blue colour.
Kofar Mata dye pits site is now under the control and administration of the Kano State Tourism Board, and still exists and continues to receive tourists and business patrons, only marred by the insurgency in the country today.
Gidan Makama Museum or Kano Museum is situated in Kano. This building served as temporary palace of Kano before the current palace Gidan Rumfa was constructed in the 15th century. It …
Gidan Makama Museum or Kano Museum is situated in Kano. This building served as temporary palace of Kano before the current palace Gidan Rumfa was constructed in the 15th century. It has significant collections of arts, crafts and items of historic interest related to the Kano area. Located in a 15th-century historical building which is recognised as a National Monument by government, the museum is divided into many galleries, each with their own centre of focus. Galleries include the Zaure in the main entrance with displays of traditional materials, city walls and maps of Kano, the history of statehood, Kano in the 19th century, the Civil War, economy, industry and music.
Gidan Makama Museum is one of the thirty-two Museums under the National Commission for Museums and Monument. It is located in the heart of Kano Old City, opposite the Emir’s Palace. Gidan Makama (Makama’s House) is both a National Monument and a Museum. It is known for its traditional architectural excellence. It has superb historical and ethnographic collections on Kanawa civilization and Hausa land in general.
Gidan Makama was built in the 15th Century A.D by Emir Abdullahi Burja as residential complex for Rumfa his grandson. Prince Rumfa was later appointed the Makaman Kano, Heir Apparent to the Emir. This explains why the house is referred to as Gidan Makama, though some prefer to refer to the complex as Gidan Rumfa. When Rumfa moved to his new Palace, the subsequent Makama’s continued to use the complex as their Official residence a situation that more or less persists till date.
The complex was split into three. The West most sectors houses the Museum, while the central area is used by the Makama and the east most area houses two educational institutions.
The Museum Frontage
Items exhibited here are huge pots excavated by archaeologists at Kofar Kabuga. There are various explanations as to the use of these pots. A tradition states that they were buried along the city-walls by Kings of Kano for protection. Another version states that the pots were kept underground for storage of grains. Ethno-archaeological research however suggests that they could have been associated with cloth dying industry for which Kano has been famous for several centuries.
Two cannons are exhibited at the entrance. They were abandoned by the Colonial conquerors in Kano. They are believed to have been part of the arsenals with which the British conquered Kano in 1903. The canons were discovered at a Military barracks at Bompai, Kano.
Gallery One: Zaure
Zaure is the main entrance of a typical Hausa building. Exhibited in this gallery are items related to traditional architecture materials like Makuba, Azara, Jakarsa Gashin jima etc. and pictures of historical buildings in Kano. The original Gate of Kofar Waika (one of the Kano City Gates) is also exhibited here it has an inscription on it which is believed to be the earliest public inscription on the door against the enemies of Kano.
Gallery Two: City Walls and Early Maps of Kano
There is a small section on the archaeology of Kano. There are samples of archaeological findings of the late Stone Age and early Iron Age which gives a glimpse of populations living and around the Dala hill at these periods. Another set of displays here focuses on the evolution of Kano city as depicted by the pattern of the city wall. The various maps by early explorers and (2) Travellers though with varying degrees of accuracy gave interesting pictures of the expansion of Kano City by the nineteenth century.
Gallery Three: History of Statehood
This gallery depicts the History of Kano City from its foundation to the present day. Oral traditions documents the time of Barbushe (A High Priest) and recounts how he set up the shrine of Tsumburbura and also how he controlled several lesser priests. It also gives the story of strangers to Kano land led by Bagauda and how they imposed themselves on the heirs of Barbushe and the subsequent conflicts they had. Symbols of Kingship and defence are also showcased in the gallery.
Gallery Four: Kano in the 19th Century
This focuses on the history of Kano in the 19th century. There are illustrations, which depict the 19th century Jihad of Usman Dan Fodio, which brought to an end the Habe ruling dynasty in Kano, written by European travelers and explorers like Henry Barth, Hugh Clapperton etc.
Gallery Five: Kano Civil War
The gallery tells the story of Kano civil war (BASASA) and the British invasion of Kano in 1903. The appointment of Mohammadu Tukur against all advice by Musulumi to succeed his father Bello in 1883 as Emir was the main cause of the civil war. Yusuf, his uncle was not happy and along with his brothers declared war on the new Emir. Though, Yusuf died at Garko his allies succeed in flushing Tukur from the palace. Later Aliyu (Sarkin Kano Alu) as installed Emir. The colonial invasion of Kano was sequel to the declaration of Northern Nigeria as a protectorate by the British Government with Lugard as Governor of Kano. When Kano refused to surrender, it was consequently invaded. They broke through Kofar Kabuga and the Emir (Sarkin Kano Alu) was sent to exile to Lokoja where he died. Abbas was installed as Emir by the British Colonial Force.
Gallery Six: The Economy and Durbar
This contains the history of Kano economy from the last five hundred years. Kano had been a centre of commerce in Western Sudan, which attracted traders from all over the world. On display are pottery, textile, and calabash carving of early industry.
Durbar in Kano is well known. The durbar is a four-day colourful event of spectacular parade of Horsemanship to mark the end of Ramadan fasting and 10th of DHUL-HIJJA. The Major events are Hawan Edi, Hawan Daushe, Hawan Nassarawaand Hawan Panisau and Hawan Dorayi. Durbar is also organised for visiting Heads of States. It is almost certain in Kano that patriotism to horsemanship is unspeakable to kingship and allegiance to the kingship cannot be separated from the horsemanship.
Gallery Seven: The Economy
This gallery is about the consolidation of Colonial rule and incorporation of Kano economy into the world capitalist system. The introduction of the first railway line in 1911, the commencement of western education, the provision of electricity and pipe borne water are highlighted.
Gallery Eight: Dar-Al-Islam
As the name suggests, the gallery is all about Islamic heritage of the Kanawa. On display is the information about the pillars of Islam, astrology, copy of hand written Al-Quran, information about the Maliki school of thought, etc.
Gallery Nine: Industry
This gallery contains the products of industries in Kano such as textile, basketry, leather work, etc. The gallery depicts the skilful nature of the Kanawas. The cottage industries that produce the above mentioned products were the backbone of Kano economy long before the arrival of the colonial forces. The products help to define the role of men and women while the design on them defines the status and age grades in Hausa society
Gallery Ten: Music
This gallery contains Kano musical instruments made up of wood, vegetable fibres, aluminium, bowls and other materials. The gallery contains ornaments, which are largely of metal (bracelets, anklets), carving, stone bracelets and beads.
Gallery Eleven: The Madobi Hut
This gallery is about traditional Hausa female room. It showcases their roles in the Hausa society. Exhibits in the room are Tasa, Taskira, Tukurwa Bed, Calabashes stone etc.
Education programmes offered by gidan makama museum, tour guides
The Museum education specialists conduct visitors round the galleries on request by the visitors.
This programme is provided to allow school children and their teachers to go through an exploratory tour of Gidan Makama Museum. Such schools on excursion are required to inform the education unit in advance of their visit. This enables adequate preparation for their reception.
Saturday Art Club
An Art Club is organized for children on Saturdays within the museum premises. This programme is designed to help develop the creativity in children using the Kanawa civilisation as the context of this cultural expression. This programme caters for children between the ages of six and eighteen. There is provision for quarterly exhibition of the art products of the group.
The museum organizes Sallah fanfares for families to relax during the Sallah celebrations.
Culled from kanoonline.com
President Recep Tayyip Erdogan has responded to the failed coup in Turkey with indiscriminate retribution. At last count, nearly 35,000 members of the military, security forces and judiciary — including 103 generals …
President Recep Tayyip Erdogan has responded to the failed coup in Turkey with indiscriminate retribution. At last count, nearly 35,000 members of the military, security forces and judiciary — including 103 generals and admirals — have been detained or dismissed; 15,000 education ministry employees have been suspended; the licenses of 21,000 teachers have been revoked; and more than 1,500 university deans have been forced to resign.
The purge is stunning in its breadth and depth, extending into the political and business classes as well as the government. How many of these people were actually involved in the weekend mutiny against Mr. Erdogan is unclear. Also unclear is whether Turkey’s fragile democracy can survive this challenge, whether it will become a kind of de facto authoritarian state and — of deep interest to Washington — whether it can recover sufficiently to continue on as a credible member of NATO, the alliance’s eastern anchor.
At such a time, one would hope for a leader willing and eager to unify his people under the rule of law, to reaffirm democratic values and to address the grievances that motivated the plotters in the first place. So far, Mr. Erdogan seems determined to fail this test of leadership.
Since the coup attempt, he has raised the prospect of reinstating the death penalty. After many terrorist incidents, he told CNN, the Turkish people seem amenable to the idea that “terrorists should be killed.” But of course any blood bath sanctioned by the government would destabilize Turkey further and seal Mr. Erdogan’s legacy as the man who destroyed modern Turkey’s promise as a model Muslim democracy.
The coup attempt seems to have magnified the authoritarian behavior bordering on paranoia that has increasingly come to define Mr. Erdogan’s leadership. In recent years, he has seized control of media outlets and lashed out at enemies real and imagined. He said the coup was the responsibility of Fethullah Gulen, a Muslim cleric living in Pennsylvania who used to be an ally until a falling out three years ago, and the government has demanded his extradition.
The Obama administration says it will consider this request if corroborating evidence is provided. Behind the scenes as well as publicly, the administration has made clear that it condemns the coup and that the two allies, often at odds, must remain committed to the fight against the Islamic State.
One unanswered question is what to do with NATO tactical nuclear weapons at Incirlik air base in southeast Turkey. The base commander and several other Turkish officers there have been detained for reportedly supporting the insurrection. American officials say the weapons are secure and they are not planning to relocate them.
The administration and the European Union have been walking a careful line, emphasizing support for Turkey while also encouraging Mr. Erdogan to follow the rule of law and other principles that unite Turkey and Europe. The people who filled the streets on Saturday to condemn the coup did so to protect constitutional democracy as much as to defend Mr. Erdogan. He would be wise to heed that message.
Culled from The New York Times
Africa covers about 6% of the earth’s total surface. With 38 of its 54 states either coastal or insular in nature, Africa has over a hundred port facilities. A few of …
Africa covers about 6% of the earth’s total surface. With 38 of its 54 states either coastal or insular in nature, Africa has over a hundred port facilities. A few of these port facilities handle 6% of the worldwide water-borne cargo traffic and about 3% of the world’s container traffic. International trade is very important for many African economies, it is often the case that regional trade grows faster than the regional port capacity and there is an increasing need to change this and focus on improving the efficiency and capacity of strategic ports around Africa.
With over 90% of Africa’s imports and exports conducted by sea, it is clear that ports play a key role in the economies they exist in. African Union’s 2050 Africa’s Integrated Maritime Strategy is aimed improving these conditions and increasing the potential for wealth creation. Although, there is still so much to achieve in terms of improving current harbours/ports in Africa, here are some worthy of note.
Durban, South Africa
Port of Durban as popularly known is Africa’s most active general cargo port. It is situated a block away from Durban’s central business district and plays a key role in S.A’s economy. Being Africa’s largest container port, it handles most of the seagoing traffic in comparison to the other ports in South Africa. This port welcomes about 4500 vessels yearly and about 83000 containers per month, it conducts trade worth over $45billion. According to the Port Management Association of Eastern and Southern Africa, it handled about 44.8 million tonnes of cargo in 2013-2014. Not only does this port contribute to the economy, it also creates employment for South African locals and contributes to poverty alleviation.
Port Mombasa, often referred to as “the city of merchants” is also worthy of note. Dating back to the times of Portuguese exploration, it has been and remains a busy trading post for the region which could be attributed to its strategic location between South Africa and the Gulf of Aden. It is a key gateway to East and Central Africa. It provides a direct link to about 80 ports worldwide and a railway line runs therefrom to Uganda and Tanzania. With 18,000 teu and a container capacity of about 250,000teu per year, Mombasa Port now handles about double this volume.
Djibouti’s ports are crucial to its geo-strategic importance both in military and economic terms. They serve as a passage for Ethiopian trade and a platform for the transhipment of goods. This involves the outflow of container and bulk cargo from larger vessels to be redistributed to East Africa and Arabian ports. It provides a secure regional hub for transhipment and relay of goods. China is also directly involved in the Port of Djibouti through the state-owned China Merchants Group. Their interest in Djibouti goes beyond the benefits of being involved in East African regional trade rather Djibouti’s position as the only reliable port along the main shipping lanes between Europe and the Gulf and also between Asia and the eastern coast of Africa is essential.
Being Nigeria’s economic focal point, Lagos generates a significant portion of the country’s GDP. Port of Lagos, also known as Lagos Port Complex is located at the Apapa area of Lagos, South West Nigeria. With a total land area of over 120hec, the geographical location is within UTM Zone 31. Its operational area consists of berthing, cargo-handling and stacking areas and storage facilities. This leading port is one of the largest and busiest in Africa, it is administered by the Nigerian Ports Authority and is split into three main sections: Lagos port, in the main channel next to Lagos Island, Apapa Port (site of the container terminal) and Tin Can Port, both located in Badagry Creek.
Abidjan, Ivory Coast
The port of Abidjan is located on a lagoon and is connected to the sea by a 2.8 long km channel. The Abidjan Container Terminal is run jointly by the French Bolloré Africa Logistics and APM Terminals. Ivory Coast’s economic capital Abidjan boasts of the biggest port in the West African sub-region. The container trans-shipment port was opened in 1951 and its 15m deep Vridi Canal allows boats with large draughts to dock in the deep-water port and this gives Abidjan an edge as it has become even more important, receiving the bulk of the country’s industrial activity.
What prospects do you think African ports have? How can they achieve optimal efficiency?
Culled from Africa on the Rise
How to take full advantage and benefit from the last part of Ramadan? Though all parts of Ramadan are full of blessings and rewards, its last ten days hold a special …
How to take full advantage and benefit from the last part of Ramadan?
Though all parts of Ramadan are full of blessings and rewards, its last ten days hold a special status reflected in the recommendations and practices of the Messenger of Allah, salla Allahu alaihi wa sallam, and his companions. I will focus here on three major practices of the Prophet, salla Allahu alaihi wa sallam, and his companions during these days.
1-Praying in the last ten nights of Ramadan
Al-Bukhari and Muslim record from ‘Aishah that during the last ten days of Ramadan, the Messenger of Allah would wake his wives up during the night and then remain apart from them (that is, being busy in acts of worship). A narration in Muslim states: “He would strive [to do acts of worship] during the last ten days of Ramadan more than he would at any other time.”
Aisha reported that With the start of the last ten days of Ramadan, the Prophet used to tighten his waist belt (i.e. work hard) and used to pray all the night, and used to keep his family awake for the prayers. [Bukhari]
2-Performing I`tikaf in the Masjid (seclusion in the Mosque)
Before going to the essential of this last section, let us stop by one of the great Imam of ahl Assunnah wal jama`ah, one of the greatest revivers of the Da`wah and the methodology of the Salaf, Shaikhul-Islam Shamsuddeen Ibn Qayyim al-Jawziyyah who will give us a brain storming admonition.
He says (rahimahu Allah) in Zaad al Ma`aad fi hadyi khairi al `ibaab :
“Since the hearts’ rectitude and firmness upon the path towards Allah the Most High, rests upon directing it solely upon Allaah and causing it to turn and give all its attention to Allaah the Most High. Since the disorder of the heart cannot be rectified except by turning to Allaah the Most High, and its disorder will be increased by eating and drinking too much, mixing with the people excessively, speaking profusely and sleeping too much. These will cause it to wander into every valley, and cut it off from its path to Allah, weaken it, divert it or put a halt to it.
From the Mercy of the Mighty and Most Merciful is that He has prescribed for them fasting, which will cut off the excesses of eating and drinking, and empties the hear of its desires which divert it on its journey to Allah the Most High. He prescribed it in due proportion as will be appropriate and will benefit the servant, with regard to this world and the Hereafter, and does not harm him, nor damage what is beneficial for him.
He also prescribed i`tikaf for them, by which is intended that the heart is fully occupied with Allah, the Most High, concentrated upon Him alone, and cut off from preoccupation with the creation. Rather it is engrossed with Him alone, the One free of all defects, such that remembering Him, loving Him and turning to Him takes the place of all anxieties of the heart and its suggestions, such that he is able to overcome them. Thus all his concerns are for Him. His thoughts are all of remembrance of Him, and thinking of how to attain His Pleasure and what will cause nearness to Him. This leads him to feel contented with Allah instead of the people, so that prepares him for being at peace with Him alone on the day of loneliness in the grave, when there is no one else to give comfort, nor anyone to grant solace except Him. So this is the greater goal of I’tikaf”.
The book Zaad al Ma`aad as well as all other books of Ibn al-Qayyim are amazing works that every Muslim should read. Al-hamdu liLLAH there is a great effort among the followers and revivers of the methodology of the Salaf in translating these books into English. Some of them or part of them are already available. You may want to contact the bookstore of al-Qur’an was-Sunnah Society of North America [USA] or al-Hidaya Publishing in UK.
I`tikaf is the seclusion and staying in the mosque with the intention of becoming closer to Allah. This was the practise of the Prophet, salla Allahu alaihi wa sallam, during the last ten days of Ramadan especially. He would do it during other months as well.
‘Aisha reported that the Messenger of Allah, salla Allahu alaihi wa sallam, used to practice I`tikaf in the last ten nights of Ramadan and used to say, “Look for the Night of Qadr in the last ten nights of the month of Ramadan.” [Bukhari]
Abu Hurairah, radiyallahu ‘anhu said: “Allah’s Messenger, salla Allahu alaihi wa sallam, used to perform i`tikaf for ten days every Ramadan, then when it was the year in which he was taken (died), he performed I`tikaf for twenty days. [Bukhari]
‘Aisha reported that the Prophet,salla Allahu alaihi wa sallam, used to practice I`tikaf in the last ten days of Ramadan till he died and then his wives used to practice I`tikaf after him. [Bukhari]
`Aishah radhiya Allahu `anha also reported that the Prophet, salla Allahu alaihi wa sallam, “Used to perform i’tikaf in the last ten days of Ramadan until Allah the Mighty and Majestic, took him. [Bukhari and Muslim]
Al-Bukhari records from Abu Said that the Prophet (S) said: “Whoever makes I`tikaf with me is to make I’tikaf during the last ten [nights].”
This Sunnah of the Prophet, salla Allahu alaihi wa sallam, has been abandoned by many Muslims and it is worth reviving it in this era.
Sayyid Sabiq says in Fiqhus-Sunnah :
The sunnah or preferred i`tikaf has no specific time limit. It can be fulfilled by staying in the mosque with the intention of making i`tikaf for a long or short time. The reward will be according to how long one stays in the mosque. If one leaves the mosque and then returns, he should renew his intention to perform itikaf.
Ya’la ibn Umayyah said: “I secluded myself in the mosque for some time for I`tikaf.” ‘Ata told him: “That is I`tikaf, as long as you secluded yourself there.”
One who is performing Sunnah (like in Ramadan) i’tikaf (i.e. not the obligatory one that is made after a vow) may end his i`tikaf at any time, even if it is before the period he intended to stay.
‘Aishah related that if the Prophet intended to make itikaf, he would pray the morning prayer and begin it. One time he wanted to make i`tikaf during the last ten nights of Ramadan, and he ordered his tent to be set up. Aishah reported: “When I saw that, I ordered my tent to be set up, and some of the Prophet’s wives followed suit. When he [the Prophet] prayed the morning prayer, he saw all of the tents, and said: “What is this?” They said: “We are seeking obedience [to Allah and His Messenger].” Then he ordered his tent and those of his wives to be taken down, and he delayed his i`tikaf to the first ten days [of Shawwal].”[Bukhari]
The fact that the Messenger of Allah ordered [his and] his wives’ tents to be struck down and [he himself left and] asked them to leave the i`tikaf after they have made the intention for it shows that they discarded the i`tikaf after they had begun it. (in this small paragraph are some additional comments to clarify things).
It is preferred for the one who is making I`tikaf to perform many supererogatory acts of worship and to occupy himself with prayers, reciting the Qur’an, glorifying and praising Allah, extolling His oneness and His greatness, asking His forgiveness, sending salutations on the Prophet, upon whom be peace, and supplicating Allah – that is, all actions that bring one closer to Allah. Included among these actions is studying and reading books of tafsir and hadith, books on the lives of the Prophets, upon whom be peace, books of fiqh, and so on. It is also preferred to set up a small tent in the courtyard of the mosque as the Prophet did.
Permissible Acts for the Mu`takif (the person performing I`tikaf)
The following acts are permissible for one who is making I’tikaf
(1) The Person may leave his place of I`tikaf to bid farewell to his wife and a Woman can visit her husband who is in I`tikaf}
Safiyyah, radhiya Allahu `anha said : The prophet salla Allahu alaihi wa sallam, was making i`tikaf [in the last ten nights of Ramadan], so I came to visit him at night [and his wives were with him and then departed]. I talked with him for a while, then I stood up to leave, [so he said:”Do not hurry for I will accompany you”,. He stood along with me to accompany me back -and her dwelling was in the house of Usaamah Ibn Zayd [until when he came to the door of the mosque near the door of Umm Salamah], two men of the Ansaar were passing by, when they saw the Prophet, salla Allahu alaihi wa sallam, they hastened by, so the Prophet, salla Allahu alaihi wa sallam, said : “Be at your ease for she is Safiyyah bintu Huyayy.” So they said:” ‘SubhanAllah, O Messenger of Allah! [we did not have any doubt about you].’ He said: “Indeed Shaytan circulates in the son of Adam just as blood circulates, and I feared that he would insert an evil thought” -or he said : “something – into your hearts” [Bukhari and Muslim, in  are additional narrations from Abu Dawud]
(2) Combing and cutting one’s hair, clipping one’s nails, cleaning one’s body, wearing nice clothes or wearing perfume are all permissible. ‘Aishah reported: “The Prophet was Performing itikaf and he would put his head out through the opening to my room and I would clean [or comb in one narration] his hair. I was menstruating at the time.” [al-Bukhari, Muslim, and Abu Dawud].
(3) The person may go out for some need that he must perform. ‘Aishah reported: “When the Prophet Performed I`tikaf, he brought his head close to me so I could comb his hair, and he would not enter the house except to fulfill the needs a person has.” [al-Bukhari, and Muslim].
Ibn al-Mundhir says: “The scholars agree that the one who performs itikaf may leave the mosque in order to answer the call of nature, for this is something that he personally must perform, and he cannot do it in the mosque. Also, if he needs to eat or drink and there is no one to bring him his food, he may leave to get it. If one needs to vomit, he may leave the mosque to do so. For anything that he must do but cannot do in the mosque, he can leave it, and such acts will not void his itikaf, even if they take a long time. Examples of these types of acts would include washing one’s self from sexual defilement and cleaning his body or clothes from impurities.”
(4) The person may eat, drink, and sleep in the mosque, and he should also keep it clean.
Actions that Nullify the I`tikaf
If a person performs one of the following acts, his I`tikaf will be nullified:
(1) Intentionally leaving the mosque without any need to do so, even if it is for just a short time. In such a case, one would not be staying in the mosque, which is one of the principles of I`tikaf.
(2) Abandoning belief in Islam, as this would nullify all acts of worship. If you ascribe a partner to Allah, your work will fail and you will be among the losers.
(3) Losing one’s reason due to insanity or drunkenness, or the onset of menstruation or post-childbirth bleeding, all of which disqualifies a person for itikaf.
(4) Sexual intercourse. Allah says [in meaning]: “But do not associate with your wives while you are in seclusion (I`tikaf) in the mosques. Those are Limits (set by) Allah. Approach not nigh thereto. Thus does Allah make clear His Signs to men: that they may learn self-restraint. [al-Baqara; 2:187]
I`tikaf is not restricted to men only, women also can do it :
‘Aisha (the wife of the Prophet) reported that the Prophet, salla Allahu alaihi wa sallam, used to practice I`tikaf in the last ten days of Ramadan till he died and then his wives used to practice I`tikaf after him.[Bukhari]
Dear Sister! when reading this do not forget the modesty and the Hijab of the wife of the Prophet (S) that you should observe if you intend to perform I`tikaf.
3-Seeking Laylatul-Qadr (the Night of Decree)
It is the greatest night of the year like the Day of `Arafah is the greatest day of the year. It is a night about which Allah reveled a full Surah, Suratul-Qadr [97:1-5] and the 3rd to the 6th verses of Surat ad-Dukhan [44:3-6]
It is the night when the Qur’an was revealed.
It is the night when the Message (the Final and seal of all messages) sent to Mohammad, salla Allahu alaihi wa sallam, started
It is the night when the light, that would illuminate mankind to the end of life, began.
It is the night when every matter of ordainment is decreed.
Allah says in what can be translated as :
“Verily! We have sent it (this Qur’aan) down in the Night of Decree (Lailatul-Qadr). And what will make you know what the Night of Decree is? The Night of Decree is better than a thousand months. Therein descend the angels and the Rooh (ie. Jibreel [Gabriel]) by Allaah’s Permission with all Decrees, Peace! until the appearance of dawn.” [97:1-5]
and in Surat ad-Dukhan :
“We sent it (this Qur’aan) down on a blessed Night. Verily, We are ever warning (mankind of Our Torment). Therein (that Night) is decreed every matter of ordainment. Amran (i.e. a command or this Qur’aan or His Decree of every matter) from Us. Verily, We are ever sending (the Messenger). (As) a Mercy from your Lord. Verily! He is the All-Hearer, the All-Knower.” [44:3-6]
A person who misses Laylatul-Qadr is really a deprived person!
Abu Hurairah reported that the Prophet, salla Allahu alaihi wa sallam, said “The blessed month has come to you. Allah has made fasting during it obligatory upon you. During it the gates to Paradise are opened and the gates of Hellfire are locked, and the devils are chained. There is a night [during this month] which is better than a thousand months. Whoever is deprived of its good is really deprived [of something great].” [Ahmad, an-Nisa’i and al-Bayhaqi]
One who misses this blessed night then he has missed much good for no one misses it except one from whom it is withheld. Therefore it is recommended that the Muslim who is eager to be obedient to Allaah should stand in Prayer during this night out of Eemaan and hoping for the great reward, since if he does this, Allaah will forgive his previous sins (1).
What happens to the person who witnesses Laylatul-Qadr? and what should one do?
Abu Hurairah Radhiya Allahu `anhu reported that the Messenger of Allah, salla Allahu alaihi wa sallam, said : “Whoever stands (in prayer) in Lailatul-Qadr out of Eemaan (faith and sincerity) and seeking reward then his previous sins are forgiven.” [Bukhari]
It is recommended to supplicate a lot during this night, it is reported from our mother ‘Aishah radhiya Allahu `anha, that she said: “O Messenger of Allah! What if I knew which night Lailatul-Qadr was, then what should I say in it?” He said.- “Say.- (Allahumma innaka ‘affuwwun tuhibbul ‘afwa fa’fu ‘annee.)”
“O Allaah You are The One Who pardons greatly, and loves to pardon, so pardon me.”. [at-Tirmithi and Ibn Majah with a Sahih Isnad]
When is Laylatul-Qadr?
It is preferred to seek this night during the last ten odd nights of Ramadan, as the Prophet salla Allahu alaihi wa sallam,, strove his best in seeking it during that time. We have already mentioned that the Prophet would stay up during the last ten nights, would wake his wives, and then would remain apart from them to worship.
Ibn Abbas reported that the Prophet (salla Allahu alaihi wa sallam) said, “Look for the Night of Qadr in the last ten nights of Ramadan ,’ on the night when nine or seven or five nights remain out of the last ten nights of Ramadan.” (i.e. 21, 23, 25, respectively). [Bukhari]
`Aishah radhiya Allahu `anha said: “Allah’s Messenger used to practice I`itikaf in the last ten nights and say: ‘Seek out Lailatul-Qadr in the (odd nights) of the last ten of Ramadan.” [Bukhari and Muslim]
However if the servant is too weak or unable, then he should at least not let the last seven pass him by, due to what is reported from Ibn ‘Umar, who said: Allah’s Messenger said: “Seek it in the last ten, and if one of you is too weak or unable then let him not allow that to make him miss the final seven.” [Bukhari and Muslim]
This explains his saying: “I see that your dreams are in agreement (that it is in the last seven) so he who wishes to seek it out then let him seek it in the last seven.” [Bukhari and Muslim]
It is known from the Sunnah, that knowledge of the exact night upon which Lailatul-Qadr falls was taken up because the people argued, ‘Ubaadah ibn as- Saamit, radiyalloahu ‘anhu, said: The Prophet came out intending to tell us about Lailatul-Qadr, however two men were arguing and he said: “I come out to inform you about Lailatul-Qadr but so and so, and, so and so were arguing, so it was raised up, and perhaps that is better for you, so seek it on the (twenty) ninth and the (twenty) seventh and the (twenty) fifth.” [Bukhari]
Some of the ahadeeth indicate that Lailatul-Qadr is in the last ten nights, while others indicate that it is in the odd nights of the last ten, so the first are general and the second more particular, and the particular has to be given priority over the general. Other ahadeeth state that it is in the last seven – and these are restricted by mention of one who is too weak or unable. So there is no confusion, all the ahadeeth agree and are not contradictory.
In conclusion: The Muslim should seek out Lailatui-Qadr in the odd nights of the last ten: the night of the twenty-first, the twenty-third, the twenty-fifth, the twenty-seventh and the twenty-ninth. If he is too weak or unable to seek it out in all the odd nights, then let him seek it out in the odd nights of the of seven: the night of the twenty-fifth, the twenty-seventh and the twenty-ninth And Allah knows best. (1)
What are the signs of laylatul-Qadr?
Allaah’s Messenger , salla Allahu alaihi wa sallam, described the morning after Lailatul-Qadr, so that the Muslim may know which day it is. From Ubayy, radhiya Allahu ‘anhu, who said: that he, salla Allahu alaihi wa sallam, said: “On the morning following Lailatui-Qadr the sun rises not having any rays, as if it were a brass dish, until it rises up.”[Muslim, Abu Dawud, Tirmithi and Ibn Majah]
Abu Hurairah, radhiya Allahu ‘anhu, said : “We were discussing Lailatul-Qadr in the presence of Allah’s Messenger so he said : ‘Which of you remembers [the night] when the moon arose and was like half a plate?”… [Muslim]
Ibn ‘Abbaas, radhiya Allahu ‘anhuma, said: Allaah’s Messenger, salla Allahu alaihi wa sallam, said:“Lailatul-Qadr is calm and pleasant, neither hot nor cold, the sun arises on its morning being feeble and red.” [at-Tayaalisee, Ibn Khuzaimah and al-Bazzaar with a Hasan Isnad]
We pray to Allah All Mighty Most Merciful to bless us this Ramadan by witnessing Laylatul-Qadr.
Many people think Ramadan is refraining from eating, drinking, smoking and having sex. In many ways, that’s the easy part. Muslims are also meant, from dawn to dusk, to refrain from …
Many people think Ramadan is refraining from eating, drinking, smoking and having sex. In many ways, that’s the easy part. Muslims are also meant, from dawn to dusk, to refrain from all bad habits, so they should not be swearing, fighting, arguing, looking at or watching what is forbidden. Such acts would either hinder or invalidate their fasting.
I am a Muslim and it does not bother me one bit that people around me are eating and drinking.
Why should it? Do we lock the kitchen door and hide all food in our homes during the day during Ramadan? Absolutely not.
The month of Ramadan is not just a physical exercise of self-restraint but an emotional, spiritual and psychological one, too. If someone says something upsetting, or that would normally start a fight, one should respond with the words “Allah-humma inni sayim,” which means “I am fasting,” as a reminder that we are meant to respond only in goodness.
That is an excellent exercise in self-restraint that is sometimes harder than abstaining from food and drink. It’s especially difficult in rush-hour traffic.
The Muslim festival of Ramadan began Monday, which in China means stepped up repression in the northwestern region of Xinjiang, home to 10 million Uighur Muslims. In Thailand, meanwhile, Uighur refugees …
The Muslim festival of Ramadan began Monday, which in China means stepped up repression in the northwestern region of Xinjiang, home to 10 million Uighur Muslims. In Thailand, meanwhile, Uighur refugees in detention are on hunger strike hoping to avoid being sent back to China. If you’re wondering what genuine Islamophobia looks like, here it is.
“Party members, cadres, civil servants, students and minors must not fast for Ramadan and must not take part in religious activities,” a local Xinjiang government website declared last week, renewing what has become an annual policy.
“During the Ramadan month, food and drink businesses must not close,” it added. Authorities also bar students and teachers from entering mosques, and as of last week residents in at least one prefecture must give police fingerprints and DNA samples before applying for a passport.
This belies the absurd recent claims by China’s State Council that religious freedom in Xinjiang “cannot be matched by any other period in history,” and that “there will be no interference” by local authorities in Ramadan observance.
The truth is that this holiday crackdown is of a piece with the state’s long-standing practice of restricting Muslim veils, beards, Uighur-language schools and other aspects of religious and ethnic identity that the Communist Party considers threatening to its monopoly on power.
Uighurs used to be the overwhelming majority in their homeland, but for decades Beijing has exported Han Chinese to Xinjiang and today the balance is about 50-50. Official Han favoritism and efforts to snuff out Uighur identity have bred increasing resentment and violent backlash, including attacks on local security forces and acts of terror in Xinjiang and beyond.
Beijing paints all Uighur rights activists as separatists and terrorists, and its sensitivity grows as the region’s energy resources and strategic proximity to Central Asia rise in importance. So repression intensifies along with resistance.
One effect is an increasing flow of Uighur refugees, including more than 70 who have been detained in Thailand since 2014. About half are on a hunger strike that began May 31, and on Monday they published an open letter. “Instead of protecting us from the imminent threat of mistreatment, torture and imprisonment upon our return, Thailand has already forcibly extradited more than 140 of us to China,” they wrote in an appeal to Thai authorities and the international community to respect their rights and keep them safe.
The refugees’ plight is complicated by Thailand’s trial of two Uighurs for a bombing at a popular Bangkok site last August that killed 20 people, including Chinese tourists, and injured more than 120. Police say the men, who claim innocence, carried out the attack to protest Thailand’s crackdown on local human-trafficking networks.
But the essential context for the Uighurs’ hunger strike is Beijing’s repression in Xinjiang and its efforts to extend its reach overseas to Thailand, Hong Kong and other places where Chinese dissidents try to hide. Beijing’s abuses are a challenge to governments world-wide—and to all those who claim to care about human rights, including the rights of Muslims.